Sunday, February 15, 2009

Brain Computer Communication (BCC) – Asynchronous/Synchronous Applications

by Leow Ruen Shan
Semester 2, 2004/2005A

brain computer interface (BCI) system can be used by severely disabled people to communicate or to control devices. The main purpose of this project is to incorporate Bluetooth wireless technology into an existing UM-BCI system to enable wireless serial communication between the data acquisition system and the computer. It also allows the computer to send control commands to two remote Bluetooth devices (prosthetic hand and LEDs). A graphic user interface is designed to test the BCI system to control a prosthetic hand that can perform four types of actions, and also to control other devices such as switching on/off LEDs. The results showed that the Bluetooth wireless modification to the UM-BCI system functioned satisfactorily. Supervisor: Goh Sing Yau

Development Of A Lie Detector

by Chin Chuan ChenSemester 2, 2004/2005

Attempt to detect P300 is carried out using visual stimulus made of two capital alphabets. Four subjects (two males and two females) aged 21 to 25 are involved in the experiment, designed in an oddball paradigm comprising of Targets (‘X’) and Irrelevants (‘O’). Targets are prompted at a probability of 0.2.
Fz, Cz, Pz and Oz montages are used to obtain EEG signals. ECG, throat EMG and EOG signals are collected in the experiment to monitor artifacts. EEG data contaminated with eye artifacts are removed through visual inspection. Data are extracted one second before to one second after the response tag. These are filtered digitally with an IIR lowpass filter, at 3.5 Hz cutt-off frequency. Filtered data are separated into a matrix of Targets and a matrix of Irrelevants for separate signal processing.
The P300 detection program uses the filtered and baseline corrected input signal to detect the presence of P300 based on its amplitude and length of the P300 complex. The total classification rate of the program is 66.6%.

Supervisor: Ng Siew Cheok

A Study Of Body Composition Changes Before And After Performing Muslim Prayer In Male Subjects

by Abdul Rahim Abdul RazakSemester 2, 2004/2005This thesis presents the study of body composition changes in male Muslims before and after performing salat zuhur in congregation. The measurement used single frequency and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method to measure the human body composition..The alternating current value less 1 mA with single frequency at 50 kHz and multifrequency range from 5 – 1000 kHz are applied through the human body for body composition measurement.
47 male subjects’ age ranges from 19 - 47 years volunteered participate in this study. All statistical data analysis is performed with SPPS version 12 and Microsoft Office Excel version 2003. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is applied to the data to identify the significant value between the groups of data before and after prayer with the six conditions is salat which is number of takbeer in salat, condition of rukuk, condition of toe, place of salat zuhur, time of salat zuhur and level of understanding meaning of reading in salat zuhur.
The result shows that the phase angle, body cell mass and intracellular water are significant parameters to analyze (p < 0.05) with the six condition in salat zuhur and these three parameters are correlated each other. The Cole – Cole plot and Phase Angle versus Frequency graph also give a significant evaluation. The result shows an increment of phase angle, body cell mass and intracellular water in single frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. For the multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, the Cole – Cole plot will translate to the right and upward of the graph area and the phase angle value increase with the increasing of the frequency.
From the data measurement analysis, there are 6 condition must be perform by the Muslims to achieve the best result and performance in salat zuhur. The person must do as following: Do all 4 takbeer in every rakaat of salat zuhur; Bend straight at 90° during rukuk position; Erect the right toe during sajdah, sit between sajdah, first tashahhud and final tashahhud; Achieve an excellent level of understanding meaning of reading in salat; Establish salat zuhur in congregation at mosque; Establish salat zuhur in time duration equal to 7 minutes
Supervisor: Fatimah Ibrahim

A Study Of Body Composition Changes Before And After Performing Muslim Prayer In Female Subjects

by Robiyanti AdollahSemester 2, 2004/2005This thesis presents the study of body composition changes in female Muslim before and after performing Zuhur prayer. There is a total sample of 28 female subjects that volunteered participated in this study. The age is in between 18 to 35 years old. The mean of age in this group study is 21.4 ± 3.474.
There are two types of bioimpedance method used in this study; single frequency and multiple-frequency measurements. This is in vivo technique where a constant current of less than 1 mA at a single frequency of 50 KHz (BIA Model 450) and Multiple frequencies at range 5 to 1000 KHz (Xitrons Hydra ECF/ICF Model 4200) is applied through the human body to measure the body composition.
All statistical analysis is performed by SPPS version 10. There are two main results analysis; single frequency and multiple-frequency. Test of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are applied to the data to identify the significant value between the groups of data before and after prayer.
In single frequency, Analysis of Variance shows that the changes in body composition before and after prayer are not significant (the p value is greater than 0.05) and this is indicates that there is no significant difference between body compositions before prayer and after performs the prayer. In single frequency, the group of missed prayer and no missed prayer in a week were evaluated using ANOVA. Two components of body composition show the significant value (p< 0.05) and the two component of the body composition that shows the significant value is fat mass and body lean mass. This results indicate that the fat mass and body lean mass may were influenced by the activity of prayer that the subjects perform daily or weekly. Other components do not show the significant value in the analysis.
For the multi-frequency, the graphs of Resistance versus frequency, Impedance versus frequency, phase angle versus frequency and cole-cole plot (reactance versus resistance) are plotted to shows the changes of body composition with the increasing of the frequency.

Biomedical Engineering Program at University of Malaya(UnderGradute)

Biomedical Engineering Program at University of Malaya

This programme is the first academic programme in Malaysia offering undergraduate and post-graduate courses in biomedical engineering. It started at the beginning of the 1997/98 with an intake of 21 undergraduates.

Undergraduate Program Structure

The undergraduate curriculum concretizes basic knowledge in the different areas of Biomedical Engineering into a four-year programme, stressing on mathematics, computer, mechanics, and electronics. It takes the following structure:
First Year = Initial level
Second Year = Intermediate Level 1
Third Year = Intermediate Level 2
Fourth Year = Final Year

Objectives and Aims

The objectives of introducing the Biomedical Engineering programme are as follows:
To upgrade the engineering expertise in order to meet current demands in the medical field
To produce professionals in the field of biomedical engineering
To offer a course in Biomedical Engineering at the undergraduate level
This programme educates the students with strong selected knowledge in the fields of biology and medicine, and an appropriate combination of knowledge in mechanical and electrical engineering, in particular applied mechanics and electronics. It trains the students so that they attain the qualification and competency to carry out the following activities:
To design, monitor, install, maintain and service medical and laboratory equipment
To carry out analysis and research in order to give advice and provide consulting services pertaining to engineering-related medical problems
To work hand-in-hand with medical experts on specific patient treatments

Admission Requirement

Applications are open to all STPM/ Matriculation/ A levels students. Besides fulfilling the University's general requirements, the students must pass with:
Minimum of Grade B (CGPA 3.0) in Mathematics and Physics, or
Minimum of Grade B (CGPA 3.0) in Mathematics
Minimum of Grade A- (CGPA 3.7) in Biology and Chemistry, and
Minimum of Grade A2 in SPM Physics.
Preference will be given to applicants who studied Biology at the post-SPM level. Equivalent qualifications are also considered.

Degree Awarded

Students who meet all the course requirements from the Initial Level to the Final Level will be awarded the Bachelor of Biomedical Engineering (BBEng) degree.

Professional Recognition

Application is being made to the Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC), Malaysia for the degree to be recognized as a qualification to attain the status of graduate engineers.

Career Opportunities

Graduates are expected to be able to gain employment as engineers in the public and private sectors, which include hospitals, research and medical centres, and companies providing engineering services to hospitals. They can also be employed to handle jobs in other related engineering areas.

Professional certification

See also: Professional engineer
Engineers typically require a type of professional certification, such as satisfying certain education requirements and passing an examination to become a professional engineer. These certifications are usually nationally regulated and registered, but there are also cases of self-governing bodies, such as the Canadian Association of Professional Engineers. In many cases, carrying the title of "Professional Engineer" is legally protected.
BME is an emerging field, and professional certifications are not as standard and uniform as they are for other engineering fields. For example, the Fundamentals of Engineering exam in the U.S. does not include a biomedical engineering section, though it does cover biology. Biomedical engineers often simply possess a university degree as their qualification. Biomedical engineering is regulated in some countries, such as Australia, but registration is typically only recommended and not required.[10]
In the UK, mechanical engineers working in the areas of Medical Engineering, Bioengineering or Biomedical engineering can gain Chartered Engineering status through the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The intuition also runs the Medical Engineering Division[11].

Higher Education In Malaysia

In Malaysia have 4 Univerisity provide training in Biomedical Engineering Courses such as University Malaya,Universiti Malaysia Perlis,Universiti Teknologi Malaysia & Universiti Tun Hussien On.Every Unversiti provide program from Bachelor to PHD in Malaysia.

Biomedical engineering training


A prosthetic eye, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering and biocompatible materials to ophthalmology.
Biomedical engineers combine sound knowledge of engineering and biological science, and therefore tend to have a bachelors of science and advanced degrees from major universities, who are now improving their biomedical engineering curriculum because interest in the field is increasing. Many colleges of engineering now have a biomedical engineering program or department from the undergraduate to the doctoral level. Traditionally, biomedical engineering has been an interdisciplinary field to specialize in after completing an undergraduate degree in a more traditional discipline of engineering or science, the reason for this being the requirement for biomedical engineers to be equally knowledgeable in engineering and the biological sciences. However, undergraduate programs of study combining these two fields of knowledge are becoming more widespread, including programs for a Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering. As such, many students also pursue an undergraduate degree in biomedical engineering as a foundation for a continuing education in medical school. Though the number of biomedical engineers is currently low (as of 2004, under 10,000 in the U.S.), the number is expected to rise as modern medicine and technology improves.[4]
In the U.S., an increasing number of undergraduate programs are also becoming recognized by ABET as accredited bioengineering/biomedical engineering programs. Over 40 programs are currently accredited by ABET.[5][6]
As with many degrees, the reputation and ranking of a program may factor into the desirability of a degree holder for either employment or graduate admission. The reputation of many undergraduate degrees are also linked to the institution's graduate or research programs, which have some tangible factors for rating, such as research funding and volume, publications and citations.
Graduate education is also an important aspect in BME. Although many engineering professions do not require graduate level training, BME professions often recommend or require them.[7] Since many BME professions often involve scientific research, such as in the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, graduate education may be highly desirable as undergraduate degrees typically do not provide substantial research training and experience.
Graduate programs in BME, like in other scientific fields, are highly varied and particular programs may emphasize certain aspects within the field. They may also feature extensive collaborative efforts with programs in other fields, owing again to the interdisciplinary nature of BME.
Education in BME also varies greatly around the world. By virtue of its extensive biotechnology sector, numerous major universities, and few internal barriers, the U.S. has progressed a great deal in the development of BME education and training. Europe, which also has a large biotechnology sector and an impressive education system, has encountered trouble in creating uniform standards as the European community attempts to bring down some of the national barriers that exist. Recently, initiatives such as BIOMEDEA have sprung up to develop BME-related education and professional standards.[8] Other countries, such as Australia, are recognizing and moving to correct deficiencies in their BME education.[9] Also, as high technology endeavors are usually marks of developed nations, some areas of the world are prone to slower development in education, including in BME.

Regulatory issues

Regulatory issues are never far from the mind of a biomedical engineer. To satisfy safety regulations, most biomedical systems must have documentation to show that they were managed, designed, built, tested, delivered, and used according to a planned, approved process. This is thought to increase the quality and safety of diagnostics and therapies by reducing the likelihood that needed steps can be accidentally omitted again.
In the United States, biomedical engineers may operate under two different regulatory frameworks. Clinical devices and technologies are generally governed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in a similar fashion to pharmaceuticals. Biomedical engineers may also develop devices and technologies for consumer use, such as physical therapy devices, which may be governed by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. See US FDA 510(k) documentation process for the US government registry of biomedical devices.

Implants, such as artificial hip joints, are generally extensively regulated due to the invasive nature of such devices.
Other countries typically have their own mechanisms for regulation. In Europe, for example, the actual decision about whether a device is suitable is made by the prescribing doctor, and the regulations are to assure that the device operates as expected. Thus in Europe, the governments license certifying agencies, which are for-profit. Technical committees of leading engineers write recommendations which incorporate public comments and are adopted as regulations by the European Union. These recommendations vary by the type of device, and specify tests for safety and efficacy. Once a prototype has passed the tests at a certification lab, and that model is being constructed under the control of a certified quality system, the device is entitled to bear a CE mark, indicating that the device is believed to be safe and reliable when used as directed.
The different regulatory arrangements sometimes result in technologies being developed first for either the U.S. or in Europe depending on the more favorable form of regulation. Most safety-certification systems give equivalent results when applied diligently. Frequently, once one such system is satisfied, satisfying the other requires only paperwork

Tissue engineering

Main article: Tissue engineering
One of the goals of tissue engineering is to create artificial organs for patients that need organ transplants. Biomedical engineers are currently researching methods of creating such organs. In one case bladders have been grown in lab and transplanted successfully into patients.[2] Bioartificial organs, which utilize both synthetic and biological components, are also a focus area in research, such as with hepatic assist devices that utilize liver cells within an artificial bioreactor construct.[3]

Medical imaging

Main article: Medical imaging

An MRI scan of a human head, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to diagnostic imaging. Click here to view an animated sequence of slices.
Imaging technologies are often essential to medical diagnosis, and are typically the most complex equipment found in a hospital including:
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Nuclear Medicine
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) PET scansPET-CT scans
Projection Radiography such as X-rays and CT scans
Electron Microscopy

Medical devices

Main articles: Medical devices and medical equipment
A medical device is intended for use in:
the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or
in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease,
intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, and which does not achieve any of its primary intended purposes through chemical action and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of any of its primary intended purposes.

A pump for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to medical equipment.
Some examples include pacemakers, infusion pumps, the heart-lung machine, dialysis machines, artificial organs, implants, artificial limbs, corrective lenses, cochlear implants, ocular prosthetics, facial prosthetics, somato prosthetics, and dental implants.
Stereolithography is a practical example on how medical modeling can be used to create physical objects. Beyond modeling organs and the human body, emerging engineering techniques are also currently used in the research and development of new devices for innovative therapies, treatments, patient monitoring, and early diagnosis of complex diseases.
Medical devices can be regulated and classified (in the US) as shown below:
Class I devices present minimal potential for harm to the user and are often simpler in design than Class II or Class III devices. Devices in this category include tongue depressors, bedpans, elastic bandages, examination gloves, and hand-held surgical instruments and other similar types of common equipment.
Class II devices are subject to special controls in addition to the general controls of Class I devices. Special controls may include special labeling requirements, mandatory performance standards, and postmarket surveillance. Devices in this class are typically non-invasive and include x-ray machines, PACS, powered wheelchairs, infusion pumps, and surgical drapes.
Class III devices require premarket approval, a scientific review to ensure the device's safety and effectiveness, in addition to the general controls of Class I. Examples include replacement heart valves, silicone gel-filled breast implants, implanted cerebellar stimulators, implantable pacemaker pulse generators and endosseous (intra-bone) implants.

Clinical engineering

Clinical engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering related to the operation of medical equipment in a hospital setting. The tasks of a clinical engineer are typically the acquisition and management of medical device inventory, supervising biomedical engineering technicians (BMETs), ensuring that safety and regulatory issues are taken into consideration and serving as a technological consultant for any issues in a hospital where medical devices are concerned. Clinical engineers work closely with the IT department and medical physicists.

A typical biomedical engineering department does the corrective and preventive maintenance on the medical devices used by the hospital, except for those covered by a warranty or maintenance agreement with an external company. All newly acquired equipment is also fully tested. That is, every line of software is executed, or every possible setting is exercised and verified. Most devices are intentionally simplified in some way to make the testing process less expensive, yet accurate. Many biomedical devices need to be sterilized. This creates a unique set of problems, since most sterilization techniques can cause damage to machinery and materials. Most medical devices are either inherently safe, or have added devices and systems so that they can sense their failure and shut down into an unusable, thus very safe state. A typical, basic requirement is that no single failure should cause the therapy to become unsafe at any point during its life-cycle. See safety engineering for a discussion of the procedures used to design safe systems.

Disciplines in biomedical engineering

Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary field, influenced by various fields and sources. Due to the extreme diversity, it is typical for a biomedical engineer to focus on a particular emphasis within this field. There are many different taxonomic breakdowns of BME, one such listing defines the aspects of the field as such:[1]
Bioelectrical and neural engineering
Biomedical imaging and biomedical optics
Biomechanics and biotransport
Biomedical devices and instrumentation
Molecular, cellular and tissue engineering
Systems and integrative engineering
In other cases, disciplines within BME are broken down based on the closest association to another, more established engineering field, which typically include:
Chemical engineering - often associated with biochemical, cellular, molecular and tissue engineering, biomaterials, and biotransport.
Electrical engineering - often associated with bioelectrical and neural engineering, bioinstrumentation, biomedical imaging, and medical devices.
Mechanical engineering - often associated with biomechanics, biotransport, medical devices, and modeling of biological systems.
Optics and Optical engineering - biomedical optics, imaging and medical devices.

What Is Biomedical Engineering

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A JARVIK-7 artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for cardiothoracic surgery using an artificial organ.

Engineering portal
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of individuals.
As a relatively new discipline, much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, covering an array of fields: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling, etc. Examples of concrete applications of biomedical engineering are the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs.